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Soviet International Units

The bulk of this material is taken from the Encyclopedia of the Russian Civil War and Intervention in the USSR. I have generally left the terminology of the Soviet era, but I personally do not consider them "nationalist kulak bandits".

I have added extra information in [square brackets] where I have it. Corrections and additions are welcome!

Divisions

Western Infantry Division

Formed on 3 August in Moscow from Polish revolutionary units as the Western Infantry Division. In September it was renamed the Western Rifle Division, then in July 1919, the 52nd Rifle Division and finally in December 1920 the 52nd Ekaterinburg RD.

It entered the forces of the Western Army (November 1918 to March 1919), the Lithuanian-Belorussian Army (March to June 1919), 16th Army (June to November 1919), 14th Army (November to December 1919), 8th Army (December 1919 to February 1920), 9th Army (February to March 1920), 13th Army (April to September 1920), 6th Army (September to November 1920), 4th Army (November 1920), 6th Army (November 1920 to May 1921) and the Kharkov Forces Area (May to June 1921).

From September to October 1918 it was on the Western Front and was involved in liberation from German invaders of Volkovysk, Lida, Baranovichi, Molodechno and Grodno. From March to July 1919 it fought against the Poles near Minsk and Molodechno, in August in the Baranovichi area, in September and October near Borisov and on the Berezina river, and in November near Lepel. Then it was transferred to the Southern Front and was in the reserve. From May to July 1920 it was involved in fighting with Wrangel's Army in the Melitopol area, in August and September it took part in the defense of the Kakhovka bridgehead, and in October and November in the offensive in the Northern Tavria (near Agayman, Nizhny Serogoza), in the forcing of Sivash and the capture of the Ishun positions. From December 1920 it guarded the coast near the Dnieper and Bug estuaries, and in 1921 fought Makhno bands in the Nikolayev District.

Commanders: V. Ershov (16 Aug 1918 - 8 Jan 1919), Ya. Makovskiy (temp, 8 Jan - 11 Feb 1919), R. Longva (11 Feb - 18 Sep 1919), I. Raudmets (18 Sep 1919 - 12 May 1920, 4-13 June 1920), V. I. Janovich (May 12 - 4 June 1920), S. I. Petrikovsky (Petrenko) (13 June - 17 July 1920), Y. V. Sablin (17 Jul 17 - 7 Aug 1920), and M. Ya. Germanovich (7 Aug 1920 - 3 Jun 1921)

RMS: S. Ya. Bobinski (14 Aug - 28 Nov 1918), S. V. Zbikovsky (3-11 Nov 1918), S. J. Badzy?ski (11 Sep 1918 - 1 Apr 1919), Dziatkevich (28 Nov 1918 - 4 Apr 1919), S. Lazovert (4 Apr - 9 Sep 1919), A. Slavyanski (4 Apr - 17 Jul 1919), P. Nikitin (1 Jul - 8 Oct 1919), K. Schwarz (16 Jul - 6 Oct 1919), V. Gruezel (23 Sep 1919 - 22 May 1920), Kozlowski (temp, 22 May - 13 Jun 1920), N. Y. Sasov (13 Jun - 24 Jul 1920), Wolberg (24 Jul - 14 Dec 1920), E. Y. Apin (14 Dec 1920 - 22 Jan 1921).

[This was the Soviet attempt to form a Red Polish Army to help conquer Poland. It is interesting to see that it suffered the same fate as the Latvian and Estonian equivalents – in each case after a while fighting their countrymen they were pulled out, refreshed and then sent to other fronts. The number of actual Poles in the division was probably quite low after the German withdrawal meant that Poles could return to Poland, and hence the name change in July 1919.]

3rd International Division

Started forming in February 1920 in Siberia, but only the 1st Brigade was formed, including the 1st International Rifle Regiment, under the command of I. Varga [see below].

Brigades

International Rifle Brigade

Started formation in May-June 1919 in Odessa as the 1st International Soviet Division, but only a brigade under the command of V. Popovich was completed. From the end of June it acted against the bands of Zelenyi and Angel in the Cherkasy area and from August to October against Denikinite bands in the regions of Trypillya, Pereiaslav and Kiev

[We have some rough figures for the Ukraine in June 1919 of the potential constituent parts: there was a Romanian Detachment of some 500 men in Vasilikov, an International Regiment of 257 men in Odessa, the 3rd International Moscow Regiment [see below] of some 500 men in Mirgorod, and various detachments of approximately 600 men in Kherson, 300 in Cherkassk and 250 in Kiev.

1st International Rifle Brigade

Formed in Kiev by order of the RMS on 22 June 1919. On 14 July 1919 it was integrated into the 12th Army on the Western Front. In August 1919 the brigade's units defended the approaches to Kiev to the south-west of the city (near Vasilkiv) from Denikin's troops and in September they took part in the offensive at Oster. From the end of September it was in the Composite Rifle Division (47th RD from October 7th) around Chernihiv. Due to a lack of ammunition the brigade withdrew to Repka, Lubaya and Loiev. On 6 November it was handed over to the Gomel UR and was disbanded. About 2,000 volunteers who wanted to serve in the Red Army were sent to Kazan in November and December.

KomBrig: S. Chastek (June to October), Dobrovolskiy (October to November).

[This was another unsuccessful attempt to form a International Division. The order for its formation gave it an infantry brigade and reserve battalion from internationalists in Kiev, Kharkov, Nizhny Novgorod, Cherkassy and the 2nd Ukrainian division. It was to have a cavalry divizion of two squadrons (but could have two divizions if enough men could be found).

We have some numbers of the constituent parts of the brigade for 12 June 1919, shortly before it was formed.

The 1st Int. Regiment had 70 commanders, 1546 combatants and 101 non-combatants. It was largely equipped with Austrian rifles, and had 30 MGs (mostly French Chauchat).

The 3rd Int. Regiment had 30 commanders, 579 combatants and 46 non-combatants. It was largely equipped with Japanese rifles and had 8 Maxim and 3 other MGs.

Separate International Cavalry Brigade

Formed in October 1920 in Kharkov from Internationalists from the Ukraine and Central Asia. In late October and early November it fought Wrangel's Forces in the 4th Army on the Southern Front and then became part of the army reserve. In late November and December it participated in the liquidation of Makhnovist bands near Berdyansk, Nogaysk, Gulay-Pol, Orekhov and Alexandrovsk. In early 1921 it was disbanded.

KomBrig: E.F. Kuzhelo.

Regiments

1st Astrakhan International Communist Regiment

Formation of the regiment started in June 1918 in Astrakhan. In July an International battalion was completed. In August that battalion took part in the defeat of the White Guard uprising in Astrakhan and then in October and November was with the expeditionary force that took part in the liberation of Kizlyar from the siege by Bicherakhov's forces. At the beginning of December the battalion was formed as a regiment and on 17 December it was incorporated to the Astrakhan UR. In April 1919 it was reformed as the Special International Battalion, moved to Kiev and become part of the 3rd International Rifle Regiment of the 1st International Brigade.

Commander: L. Gavro.

1st Revolutionary Warsaw Red Regiment

The 1st Polish Revolutionary Regiment was formed in November 1917 in Belgorod from the Polish Reserve Regiment. It took part in the defeat of the Kornilovites near Belgorod. Then based in Moscow, where it arrived in January 1918, in March 1918 it became the 1st Revolutionary Regiment of Red Warsaw. In July it took part in the liquidation of the Left SR Revolt. In April and July it sent detachments of Internationalists to Kursk (company under the command of M. Kowalski) and to the Taldom and Moyek Provinces (detachment under R. Ainen). In July it sent detachments of Internationalists to Kursk (company under command of M. Koval), Taldom, Moyek Province (a detachment under R. Aynenkel), near Tsaritsyn company under the command of M. Aynenkel), to the Umani region (detachments of Shpak and V. Scibor), to the suppression of the Yaroslavl uprising (detachment of V. Filianovich) and others. On 6 August 1918 the regiment was sent to Tambov, where it was included into the 1st brigade of the future Western Rifle Division. As a part of the brigade in September it was directed against the White Cossacks forces of Krasnov: one battalion was included into the 14th Army, the rest with the brigade operated to the south of Balashov, then defended the front line area Makashevsky to Nikolaevsk, and from the middle of December from Osipov to Krasny. It also held back the White Cossacks attacking Kalach and Bochar. In February 1919 the regiment, together with the brigade, was moved to the Western Front and attached to the Western RD.

Commander: S. Zbikovsky.

1st Turkestan International Rifle Regiment

Formed at the end of May and the beginning of June 1920 in Turkestan on the base of the 4th Turkestan Rifle Regiment (over 50% of which were Hungarians and Germans) and independent detachments of Transcaspian Internationalists. It was sent to Ukraine where it was used in anti-gang operations and for ensuring the safety of food squads. On 16 June 1920 the regiment was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for battles with counter-revolutionaries in Turkestan. At the end of September 1920 the Internationalists in the regiment were demobilised.

Commanders: A. Szabo (May to June), J. Varga (June to August), A. Zeroni (August to September).

[An order of battle for Turkestan of 9 May 1919 gives a 1st Turkestan Soviet Regiment having 650 men. As the area had large numbers of Internationalists from POWs it seems unlikely that it would take to 1920 to form them into a regiment. It seems likely that this is a forerunner to the unit above.]

1st Czechoslovak Revolutionary Regiment

Formed in April 1918 in Penza. In May the regiment sent a detachment under the command of K. F. Galants to Kuznetsk (Saratov Province) to suppress the White Guard uprising, and then the detachment was sent to the Urals Region, where a White Cossack uprising had occurred. At the end of May another detachment under the command of Y. A. Strombach united as a combined Penza detachment (commanded by Strombach), which was reorganized into the Penza Regiment and included into V. I. Chapaev's Brigade and participated in battles with the White Cossacks near Uralsk, Shipovo, Novouzensk etc. In the summer of 1918 the regiment sent a detachment to Syzran under the command of S. Chastek. In 1919, the Czechoslovak Red soldiers joined Chastek's 1st International Brigade.

Commanders: J. A. A. Strombach, H. Shrutek, J. Synek, A. Shipek.

1st Yugoslavian Communist Regiment

It was formed in August 1918 in Cherny Yar (near Tsaritsyn) by consolidating the Yugoslav detachments of D. Serdic, S. Lazic and N. Grulovic. The regiment was in the garrison of Cherny Yar and it repulse raids by White Guards from the Kalmyk steppes. In the autumn of 1918 and the beginning of 1919 it participated in battles with White Guards near Tsaritsyn in the area of Tundutov, Tsatsa, Solodnikov, Raygorod and Sarepta. In 1919 it was disbanded, the infantrymen were attached to the 2nd Brigade of the 37th Rifle Division and the cavalrymen joined the 3rd Crimean Cavalry Regiment.

Commander: D. Serdich.

2nd International Rifle Regiment

Formed in May 1918 in Tambov on the basis of Czechoslovakian detachments. From June it fought White Cossacks near Aleksikovo station and Grachevsky farm and liquidated the counter-revolutionary uprising in Tambov. In July 1918 it fought near Filonovo station, and in August to December in the vicinity of Elani. In January and February 1919 fought hard battles on the Khopyor River and suffered heavy losses. In March 1919 the surviving personnel were included into the 3rd battalion of the 138th Rifle Regiment [16th RD], as the Special International Battalion.

Commander: Knizhek.

2nd International Rifle Regiment

Formed in February 1919 in Poltava on the basis of the Romanian detachments and called the Romanian Revolutionary Regiment. After the regiment was joined by the Special Hungarian Battalion, together with the Crimean Regiment, it liquidated in March the counter-revolutionary revolt in Poltava and was called the 1st Poltava (Rumanian-Hungarian) International Regiment (until the beginning of June). In March and April 1919 took part in the defeat of bandits near Voznesensk and Cherkassy. 14 On May it fought the bands of Grigoriev. In July it took part in the battles with Denikin's units around Kharkiv. In August the unit was included into the 1st International Rifle Brigade under S. Chastek.

Commanders: I. Seceanu, R. Fekete.

2nd Fergana Cavalry Regiment

Formed by order of the Commander in Chief of the Turkestan Republic on 18 November 1919 from the small detachments of Internationalists in the Fergana region. It was a part of the Fergana brigade of the 2nd Turkestan Rifle Division. From the end of December it participated in battles against the Basmachi in the regions of Bazar-Kurgan, Aravan, Namangan and Iski-Naukat. In the summer of 1920 it operated with Soviet troops in the foothills of the Alay Range, then he fought with the Basmachi north of Namangan. It participated in Bukhara operation of 1920 as a part of the Katta-Kurgan group. In October 1920 was sent to the Southern Front and became part of the Separate International Cavalry Brigade.

Commanders: E.F. Kuzhelo, M. Vrabets.

[One of the detachments used to form this unit was the 1st International Cavalry Detachment, which in June 1919 had 102 men, of whom 72 were sabres.]

3rd Finnish Communist Regiment

Formed in November-December 1918 from three Finnish detachments which had arrived from Syzran and Perm to defend Petrograd, and became part of the 6th Rifle Division. It took part in the liberation of Narva (29 November 1918), then was forwarded to Gdov from where it advanced to Tartu. In February 1919 he was transferred to Karelian Military District. In 1919 he was transferred to Karelia and was included into the 6th Finnish Rifle Regiment.

Commander: Blagoveshchenskiy.

3rd International Rifle Regiment (from December 1919, the 519th RR)

It was formed in September 1919 around Radomysl on the basis of the 2nd Battalion of the 3rd International Regiment of the 1st International Brigade. In the summer of 1919 the battalion was involved in the liquidation of nationalist kulak bands in the vicinity of Kiev. In August 1919 as a part of the Northern Forces Group of the 12th Army it fought to the northwest of Kiev in the area of Nemeshayevo and Borodyanka. Replenished, it was deployed as the Radomysl International Regiment. After heavy fighting near the Teterev River it escaped encirclement and on 18 September it connected with the Southern Group of the 12th Army. It was renamed the 3rd International Rifle Regiment and fought with the group in the Zhitomir area (under the command of the Head of the 58th Rifle Division). From early November it was added to the 2nd Brigade of the 58th Rifle Division. In December of the same year it took part in the liberation of Kiev and was awarded the Honorary Red Banner. In February and April 1920 it fought on the river Sluch and the Novograd-Volynskoe area; in May it fought White Poles in the region of Darnitsa, Brovary and M.Aleksandrovka. From June to September 1920 it took part in the offensive on Kiev and Sarny, in the forcing of the Sluch, Styr and West Bug Rivers, and in November in the fight against the Bulak-Balakhovich bandits.

Commanders: L. Tavro, Reznikov, Topchiy.

6th Finnish Rifle Regiment

Formed in September 1919 at Medvezhye Gora station (Karelia) on the basis of the Finnish Red Guard detachment of A. P. Vasten. Was named the 1st Finnish Communist Rifle Regiment (from January to August 1919, the 164th Finnish RR, from August 1919, the 6th Finnish RR). Part of the 19th Rifle Division (from September 1919, the 1st RD). During the battalion's operations it defended the territory of Karelia on a wide front, took part in the Lyzhemsk operation. From October until the end of March 1920 it guarded the Finnish border, and then liberated Northern Karelia (the region of Uhta, Voknavolok, Tihtozero, etc.). In winter 1920, in the Soroka District it was replenished with Russians and after reorganization was renamed as the 381st Rifle Regiment, including the 1st Finnish battalion. In March 1921 transferred to Petrograd, where it performed security service in the Petropavlovsk Fortress until May 1921, when it was disbanded.

Commanders: A.P. Vasten, A.P. Petrov, Korotkov.

216th International Rifle Regiment

Created by renaming the International detachment of S. Chastek into the 1st International Regiment (from November 1918, the 216th) by order of the Command of the 1st Army on 4 August 1918. In September 1918 it took part in the liberation of Simbirsk in the 1st Composite Simbirsk Infantry Division (from November 1918, the 24th Rifle Division) and in offensive action in Trans-Volga region, it took part in the liberation of Samara, Buzuluk and Orenburg. From February to April 1919 it was in the Eastern Front. By 1920 there were not many Internationalists left in the regiment, because they were either killed in the battles or returned to their homeland.

Commanders: S. Chastek, D. Varga, and Lepin.

222nd International Rifle Regiment

Formed in April 1919 in Samara, it became part of the 2nd (74th) Brigade of the 25th Rifle Division. From April to In June of that year it took part in the counter-offensive of the Eastern Front, excelled in the Buguruslan and Ufa operations, and was awarded with the Honorary Revolutionary Red Banner for the capture of Ufa. From July 1919 to January 1920 it participated in the battles in the Ural region and in the liberation of Uralsk and Guriev. From June 1920 it was engaged in the Western Front and took part in the Kiev operation, in the offensive to the Western Ukraine and in the subsequent withdrawal.

Commanders: M.F. Bukshtynovich (March to May 1919), S.E. Maltsev (May to July, September to October 1919), S.Y. Otradnov (July to September and November 1919).

480th Finnish Rifle Regiment

This was formed in Petrograd in March 1919 by transforming E. A. Rahja's detachment into the 1st Finnish Rifle Regiment (in June and August 1919 the 54th Finnish Rifle Regiment, from August 1919 the 480th Finnish Rifle Regiment). In April 1919 it was sent to South Karelia in connection with the White Finnish invasion. In June of that year it took part in the battles at the Olonets sector of the front, liberation of Olonets and the assault to the Tuloksa river. After re-forming in August, from September 1919 it was a part of the 54th Rifle Division, attached to the 6th Army and from September 1919 fought on the Northern Dvina, liberating Arkhangel (February 1920). In May 1920 it was engaged on the Western Front and took part in the July operation and in the offensive against Warsaw. In August 1920 together with other troops of the 4th Army it was interned in East Prussia.

Commander: N. N. Osin.

International Rifle Regiment named for Wienermann

Its core was the 1st Moek International Battalion which was formed in May 1918 by the IFKA and was forwarded in June under the command of L. Wienermann to the Uralsk military area. It was supplemented with Astrakhan Internationalists and was called Astrakhan International Battalion (later Regiment), which in July to September was engaged in fighting against White Cossacks around Krasny Kut and freed Novozensk and Aleksandrov Gay (from August in the Novouzensk Infantry Division). At the end of September 1918 by the order of the 4th Army RMS Wienermann's battalion and some other detachments were united to form the Aleksandrov-Gai Wienermann Detachment (from the middle of October, the Aleksandrov-Gai Group, from 13 November, the Aleksandrov-Gai Division, from the beginning of December, the Aleksandrov-Gai Detachment, on 16 December 1918, the Alexander-Gai Separate Rifle Brigade). In March 1919 as a part of Aleksandrov-Gai Group (formed on 26 February) it participated in clearing Slomikhinskaya. On 22 March 1919 it was disbanded.

Saratov International Rifle Regiment

Formed in August 1918 in Saratov from Czechoslovak, Serbian, Polish, and German-Hungarian detachments. In September as part of the Vol'sk (or Volga) Rifle Division it took part in the offensive action on the Volga and fought near Khvalynsk. On 22 September 1918 was included into the 1st Nikolayevsk Soviet Division (from 25 September, the 1st Samara Infantry Division, from 19 November, the 25th Rifle Division). At the end of September it broke through White Front and on 1 October 1 was at Maiguga station (60 km west from Samara), fought with the enemy retreating from Syzran. On 24-25 November fought with White Guards and on 26 November it covered the withdrawal of the 2nd Brigade, 25th Rifle Division to Garshino. At the beginning of December the unit was disbanded.

Commanders: I.I. Makarov, L.E. Murashevskiy and Tupikov.

[This unit was largely Hungarians.]

Legion (Regiment) of the 3rd International

Formed in July 1918 in Aktyubinsk from the "Legion of emigrant-communists" forced back from Orenburg and other International detachments. From August to November it fought White Cossacks and in September near Yaisan station it defeated a Russian and Hungarian officer company. From December 1918 to January 1919 it was part of the Aktyubinsk group and took part in the attack on Orenburg and its capture. At the beginning of February 1919 it was included in the 1st Brigade of the Orenburg Rifle Division (from April the 31st Rifle Division) as the Rifle Regiment of the 3rd International.

Commanders: Belevich, G.I. Zanuzdanov, F.A. Yurichek,

Legion of the 3rd International

Formed in March 1919 in Aktyubinsk from prisoners of war. In the beginning of April the Legion took part in the defence of Aktyubinsk from the White Cossacks and also covered the evacuation of the city. From the end of April as a part of the forces of the Aktyubinsk (from the end of May, the Northern, from July. the North-Eastern) Front. It fought defensive battles in Tamdy, Akkemir and other villages and covered the withdrawal of the front's forces to the Aral Sea, where it was reorganized into a battalion and joined the 1st Orenburg Composite Regiment.

Commanders: L. Shipko, M. Lechner, Mladonitsky.

[There is an order of 13 May 1919 instructing that all Internationalists in detachments are to be sent to the Battalion of the 3rd International. There is a list of Internationalists taken a few days before this, presumably in preparation, which lists:

On the Ashgabat front: 30 in the Kazan regiment, 200 at Fort Alexandrovsky, 120 in the Chernyaevsky detachment, 120 in the Merv militia (and 650 in the 1st Turkestan Soviet Regiment who are presumably excluded as not in a detachment).

On the Fergana front: 600 in the Semirechensk detachment, 350 in the Samarkand garrison, 200 in the Tashkent garrison and 200 in Bukhara and Katta-Kurgan.]

1st Ekaterinodar International Regiment

Formed in the summer of 1918, participated in August 1918 in the defense of Ekaterinodar;

1st International Rifle Regiment of L. Tardin (from 15 June, Yurichek)

Formed in early May 1919 in Kiev, participated as part of the 2nd Communist Brigade in battles with Petliurites near Proskurov (June), then in the 1st International Brigade of S. Chastek [see above].

1st International Rifle Regiment of I. Varga

Formed at the beginning of 1920 in Achinsk, which fought against banditry in Siberia. In May it escorted the "golden train" from Achinsk to Kazan, then fought in the Northern Tavria and distinguished itself in the storming of Perekop, and fought against Makhnovists.

1st International Cavalry Regiment named after Wienermann

Formed in October 1918 in Aleksandrov Gai. It operated from November 1918 to February 1919 as part of the Aleksandrov Gai Division (Brigade) [see above].

2nd International Rifle Regiment

Part of the 1st Ukrainian Special Brigade of R. F. Sievers, which from August to November 1918 participated in the defense of Tsaritsyn on the Balashovsko-Kamyshinsky section;

3rd International Rifle Regiment

Formed in February 1919 in Orenburg and placed in the Orenburg Rifle Division (from April 1919, the 31st RD).

225th Chinese Rifle Regiment

A Chinese Battalion was created in the summer of 1918 in Alapaevsk by Zhen Fucheng. It operated in the Urals. In November 1918 it and several other Chinese detachments formed the 225th Rifle Regiment as part of the 3rd Brigade, 29th Rifle Division on the Eastern Front.

The Warsaw Rifle Regiment

Formed in the spring of 1918, from the reorganization of the 1st Regiment of the 7th Army of the South-Western Front. It fought in May against German interventionists near Valuiki, and from August to October with the White Guards in the Povorino, Kalach, and Buturlinovka areas.

Voronezh International Communist Regiment

Took part in the battles near Povorino in the summer of 1918;

Separate Persian Rifle Regiment

Formed in April 1920 in Turkestan on the basis of the Independent Persian International Detachment. It participated in the liberation of Old Bukhara in September 1920;

Separate International Cavalry Regiment

Formed in Uman in the summer of 1919, took part in the liberation of Zhmerynka and Proskurov. From August to October it fought in the area of Fastov, Kiev, Nizhyn and Chernigov. Was sent to Kazan in November and disbanded in January 1920;

Czechoslovak International Regiment

Formed in May 1918, fought against the White Czechs.

Battalions

1st Separate International Battalion

Part of the 20th Rifle Division.

1st Rifle Battalion of V. Mirowski

Was part of the so-called Czechoslovak Red Army, founded in May 1918 in Vladivostok.

1st Tsaritsyn International Communist Battalion

Formed in July 1918 in Tsaritsyn.

1st Moek International Reserve Battalion

Founded in the summer of 1918.

International Battalion

Created in June 1918 in Perm, it was in the Middle Urals Division of the 3rd Army.

1st Separate International Cavalry divizion

Created in May and June 1919 in Kiev.

[At the time of forming it had 20 commanders, 375 combatants and 50 non-combatants, with 2 Maxims and 32 LMGs.

This is the unit described in the Osprey Red Army book as largely composed of Hungarian Squadrons.]

Chinese Battalion of the 21st Moek Rifle Regiment

Created in the summer of 1918. Fought the White Cossacks on the Don.

Orel International Battalion

Founded in the end of 1917 in Orel. In 1918 became part of the 1st Army.

Romanian Revolutionary Infantry Battalion

Founded in January 1918 in Odessa. Fought near Bender and Odessa, and then near Tsaritsyn and Astrakhan.

Romanian Revolutionary Marine Battalion

Founded in January 1918 in Odessa. Fought in the Odessa area and elsewhere.

Other

Internationalists also served in various subdivisions of the 1st Horse Army, the 3rd Urals Rifle Division, the cavalry brigade of G. I. Kotovski, the 1st and 2nd Urals and 3rd Ufa Soviet Regiments, the 72nd Cavalry Regiment, the Revolutionary "Lenin" Regiment, the 1st and 2nd Kazan Soviet Regiments, 1st and 2nd Turkestan Soviet Regiments, 4th Turkestan Rifle Regiment, 17th Rifle Regiment of the 4th Urals Rifle Division (later 265th RR of the 30th RD), the Kazan Composite "Ginsburg" Regiment, 3rd and 4th Ekaterinburg Regiments, 1st Orenburg Composite Regiment, the 1st Trans-Caspian Cavalry Regiment, the Kamsk Flotilla, etc., as well as many units of the Cheka, VOKhR and VnuS troops.

Many Internationalists fought in partisan detachments, especially in Siberia and the Far East (detachments of I. M. Gromov, E. Mamontov, N. A. Kalandarishvili, P. E. Gsetinkin, etc.).

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