An incomplete and inaccurate list of actions during the French Intervention

This list tries not to include actions where only a platoon or smaller fought on one side, as my interest is in gaming above skirmish level. The numerous combats where only a few dozen French (usually a cavalry squadron or Contre-Guerilla unit) fought have therefore been omitted. Smaller ambushes have also been left out.

mexico  Mexicans;
france  French, including contra-guerrillas;
Belgium  Belgian Legion;
austria  Austrian Legion;
Europe  Imperial "Mexican" units largely made up of Europeans and/or ex-Confederates.


9 January - The French expedition lands 3,000 men in Vera Cruz. There is no opposition. The French slowly expand their area of influence around the port, but without combat. -
18 April - General Lorencez sets off. The entire expeditionary force now numbers some 7,300 soldiers. Avenel
end-March Ahuacatepec mexico Colonel de la Pena (Liberal) defeats Colonel Tovar. Anales
10 April Izucar de Matamoros mexico General Cobos defeats General Alatriste. Anales
19 April Fortin france A small squadron of French cavalry attack retiring Mexicans, under General Zaragoza. The first (small scale) confrontation between French and Mexicans. Avenel Dabbs
28 April Las Cumbres de Aculzingo france The Mexicans oppose the French on the last natural obstacle in front of Puebla: the steep slopes at the edge of the Anahuac plateau above Acultzingo. The Mexicans have 4,000 men, with three batteries and 200 cavalry. The French initially send in two battalions, then add reinforcements until reaching 14 companies as resistance is steady. After 3 hours the defenders are pushed off. French report losses as light, though the Mexicans claim 500 casualties. Avenel Roeder Wikipedia
4 May Atlixco mexico Liberal General Tomas O’Horan defeats General Marquez, who is trying to get through to the French column marching on Puebla. Internet Anales
5 May Cinqo de Mayo france The French assault the Guadeloupe fort outside Puebla and are driven off with extremely heavy losses. The French then retire from Puebla, awaiting reinforcements from France. Avenel
14 May Borrego france Captain Diétrie defeats General Ortega. Anales
17 May Barranca Seca mexico
General Tapia, commanding a Liberal army of 500 cavalry and 1,500 infantry, attacks General Marquez who is on his way to link up with the French. Colonel l’Hériller dispatches the 99th Line, who attack the Liberals at the bayonet and the drive them off in disorder, saving their allies. Casualties are heavy on both Mexican armies, light for the French. Avenel
10 June - General Douay disembarks at Vera Cruz with the rest of the initial French forces. -
13 June Cerro Borrego france The Liberals sneak a large force with guns onto an unguarded hill above the town of Orizaba, main base of the French. They are driven off by an attack at night. Avenel Pierron
14 June Orizaba france General Zaragoza approaches Orizaba from the south. Both sides shell each other for a while but neither makes any other aggressive moves. Zaragoza retires overnight. Avenel Pierron
- - French reinforcements pour into Vera Cruz. 21 September General Forey; early October General Neigre, 17 October Generals Bazaine and Castagny. French forces now number 17,000+. -
19 October Tepic mexico Colonel Corona unsuccessfully attacks Lozado in the town. Anales
?? Tuxpan mexico General Carvajal gathers an army to defend Huasteca. With a force of about 1,200 men he defeats Imperialist Colonel Manuel Llorente in a battle for the port. Arms
Early December Jalapa mexico General Marquez defends the city against the Liberals. Avenel
December La Hoya + Cruz Blanca france General Bazaine, leading the reinforcements from France, marches on Puebla. His outlying forces skirmish with Mexicans along the way. CFFH mentions combats at Cerro Leone, Cerro Gordo and Lorgano. Dabbs CFFH


January  Perote france During a march a battalion of the 62nd Line is attacked by forces under Miron. Dabbs
February  Nopalucan francemexico The Liberals hound Bazaine’s column with several major attacks. The Mexicans allies, under Marquez, bear the brunt. This may include the action at Los Llanos, where CFFH notes the 12th Chasseurs coming to the rescue of a convoy guarded by the 51st Line. Dabbs
10 March Jocotopec mexico Colonel Rojas, commanding the Army of the East, takes the town, then shoots his Conservative prisoners. Anales
16 March Puebla francemexico The siege starts. The French use conventional tactics with saps and artillery bombardments. The French have 30,000 men (8,000 of them Mexican). The defenders have 22,000, plus the 8,000 strong Army of the Centre which attempts to run in supplies and fights guerrillas. Anales
22 March Cholula francemexico Avenal has General Mirandol repelling an attack by 2,000 Liberal cavalry under Comonfort. CFFH has this action won by 2 squadrons of the Chasseurs d'Afrique and conflicting information on whether the 12th Chasseurs fought. Avenel CFFH
29 March Fort San Javier france The first major action at the siege: the fort falls after a hard-fought engagement. -
31 March Guadalupita Convent france The convent is taken by assault. The siege itself is now a series of small actions to take individual city blocks, with very heavy losses on both sides. Avenel
14 April Ateixco france A regiment out foraging under Colonel Brincourt is attacked. Grouping his party he forced the Liberals to retreat, then follows up to San Lorenzo, again inflicting severe casualties. Dabbs
15 April Fort Carmen france The fort is attacked, but resists. Avenel
15 April Resupply attempt unsure Liberal General O’Horan leaves Puebla with a cavalry corps and attempts to bring a convoy into the city, but fails. Avenel
25 April Santa Ines Convent france The convent holds off an attack, with the French suffering extremely heavily. The French now move mostly to a strategy of starving out Puebla. -
30 April Camerón france A company of the Foreign Legion is trapped by a large Liberal contingent while scouting along the supply route to the siege at Puebla. The Legionnaires fight until all dead or wounded. Avenel
Various Puebla area france Several small cavalry encounters occur around the siege. CFFH notes an action at  Atlisco where all three regiments of the Chasseurs d'Afrique fought. Roeder CFFH
5 May San Pablo del Monte france The Liberals under Comonfort try to break through the siege lines into the city (at night?). Their army has 5-7,000 men and 8-13 guns. This attack is 1,000 cavalry plus supporting infantry and artillery, and is held off by some Chasseurs d'Afrique and some of the 99th Line. Avenal Exped. CFFH
6 May San Lorenzo mexico
Again Comonfort tries to get through to Puebla (at night?), pushing off General Marquez’s troops, only to be stopped by a French column. This may be the action CFFH calls Altixco, in which case it is the 3rd Zouaves. Avenel Dabbs CFFH
8 May San Lorenzo francemexico In a large surprise attack, General Bazaine (with Marquez) sweeps Comonfort from the field. Avenel Gaulot
12 May Totimechuacan  unsure Attempted break-out of Puebla. Dabbs
17 May Puebla The city surrenders as food and ammunition run out. Approximately 27 generals and 12,000 men surrender. Anales
7 June - The French enter Mexico city. -
July onwards - As well as the Vera Cruz to Mexico City axis, the French spread across the eastern coast, largely unopposed. Cities around Mexico City fall unopposed into French hands. -
1 August Candelaria france The 2nd Zouaves and 5th Hussars (on foot) clear this pass, defended by 800 Mexicans. CFFH
28 August Duranzo mexico Tovar (Imperial) defeats Rojas in a six-hour combat. Rojas has 29 dead and 43 wounded. Anales
8 November - After a long pause the French reorganise and set out to extend their grip. A southern column pushes General Diaz back into Oaxaca while a northern one secures the cities of the central plateau. The French are generally not opposed and inevitably win if they are. -
ca. November Iguala mexico General Marquez dispatches part of his force and relieves the town, where General Taboada had been being besieged by Porfirio Diaz. Dabbs
mid-November Taxco mexico The town falls to Porfirio Diaz, who takes 271 prisoners. Anales
November Tulancalco franceunsure 62nd Line CFFH
November San Xavier franceunsure 62nd Line CFFH
14 November Molino del Soria mexico Liberal Comonfort killed when he is ambushed by pro-Imperial guerrillas at a rancho near Queretaro, while out with his staff (100 men). Dabbs Anales
18 December Morelia francemexico Colonel Berthier (with Marquez) successfully defends the city against the furious attack of Uraga (12,000 men and 36 guns). (Some disagreement on whether the French are present.) Dabbs Anales
22 December Zamora franceunsure The barricades of the town are over-run and the enemy pursued. It would seem that this was done by three squadrons of French cavalry. CFFH
27 December San Luis Potosi mexico General Mejia occupies the city despite a counter-attack from General Negrete. Avenel


28 January Aguas Calientes franceunsure 12th Chasseurs and a mountain battery are present here, as part of the Douay column, during the pursuit of General Uraga. CFFH
29 January Teocaltiche france A French flying column of a battalion on mules and cavalry attacks Liberals (500 men, 2 guns?) in the town and take it within 30 minutes. Loizillon
c20 January Penjamillo mexico Imperial Mexican troops inflict a costly defeat on the Liberal troops under General Peña y Barragan  (who had entered the town and were looting it). Dabbs
3 February Valle de Santiago france The 51st and 95th Line, plus mounted Mexican auxiliaries, tangle with the guerrillas of Cantarido. CFFH
27 February San Juan Bautista (SE) france Evacuated by French marines and allies under pressure from General Diaz. Avenel
28 February Minatitlan france Also evacuated. Avenel
8 March Amatitlan mexico Gutierrez’s band (Liberal) surround 30 men of Lozada in a Church. They surrender when artillery is brought forward (and are then executed). Loizillon
21 March Cuesillo france A French column (12th Chasseurs, mountain battery) overwhelms a rearguard in a hacienda and then pursues the remainder of Gutierrez’s band into the hills. Loizillon CFFH
25 March Malpaso mexico
José Maria Chavez takes the town in a bloody massacre. The next day Captain Crainvilliers catches him by surprise and routs him. Dabbs
End March Mazatlan mexico Colonel Ochoa fends off an attempt to take the town by the French (landing troops from the warship Cordelière). Arms
11 April Colotlan franceunsure Chasseurs a pied (another battalion is noted for an action on 5 February). CFFH
18  April San Antonio france One of the more successful Contre-Guerilla actions. CFFH
May Santa Anna, Acotlan franceunsure Infaterie legere d'Afrique, 12th Chasseurs. CFFH
May Cosautlan francemexico Infaterie legere d'Afrique with Mexican allies. CFFH
13 May Nochistlan france Colonel Potier crushes the 500 men of Jesus Mejia, who retire from the city barricades into a church. There is heavy fighting and Mejia is killed. The 12th Chasseurs charge the rear-guard of the Liberals. Avenel Loizillon CFFH
17 May Matehuala mexico
Liberal Doblado (6,000 men) attacks General Mejia, forcing him back into the plaza. The Imperialists are rescued by the 62nd Line, Chasseurs d'Afrique and artillery under Colonel Aymard attacking into Doblado's flank and rear (the French were working from captured letters, so knew Doblado’s plans). Avenal Dabbs CFFH
ca. 30 May Zacoalco france A French column, under Colonel Garnier, engages the men of Rojas, who flee pretty much immediately. Loizillon
June Cocuite franceunsure 4th and 5th companies of the Infaterie legere d'Afrique with 350 Mexican infantry defeat the Liberals' 150 cavalry and 500 infantry.. CFFH
August San Antonio france 7th Line fights in Teotitlan campaign CFFH
August Ayotla france 7th Line fights in Teotitlan campaign CFFH
17 August Rancho de Rodea unsure Liberal General Cantarito killed. Dabbs
Late 1864 - From this point there was almost no direct opposition to French expansion. The columns send out by the French get smaller and smaller as a result. -
September Estanzuela franceunsure Chasseurs a pied fight at this hacienda. CFFH
21 September Cerro de Majoma francemexico 4,000 Liberals under Ortega attacks a force of 530 French (Zouaves, 12th Chasseurs?) and 80 Mexicans and is defeated after a very hard fought engagement, with casualties heavy on both sides. Roeder Anales CFFH
26 September Bagdad france
French Marines had been landed on 22 August, and hold out against attacks until the arrival of relief under General Mejia. Dabbs Anales
27 October Cocula (Colula?) france A compagnie franche and 30 cavalry (12th Chasseurs), perhaps also artillery, rout the 300 men of Guttierez. CFFH
22 November Jiquilpan franceunsure The 6th squadron of the 12 Chasseurs help free the 5 companies of the 1st Zouaves and artillery encircled by the 4,000 men of General Ortega. CFFH
22 December San Pedro france Colonel Rosales, with 400 men, completely defeats Colonel Gazielle, with 500 French and Algerians (and perhaps marines). Anales
December - By the end of the year only the states of Michoacan (E), Chihuahua (N) and Oaxaca (S) are still under Liberal control with alliegance to Juarez. (However, other outlying states are attempting to become independent or resisting the Empire separately.) -


1 January Espinazo del Diablo france Colonel Garnier defeats Corona, taking 14 prisoners, who he shoots. Anales
10 January Veranos france A night attack by guerrillas on a company of French line (left as garrison) and a few Mexican stragglers causes very heavy losses. The village is burnt in reprisal. ? Anales
13 January Mazatlan france A French relief column relieves the encircled town. Avenel
17 January Oaxaca france The city is besieged by a French column of 5,500 men (only a few of the cavalry being Mexican). Porfirio Diaz had an army of 7,000, of which 3,000 are regular, plus another 700 under his son, Felix.  Avenel
28 January Rancho de Potrerillos francemexico A contra-guerrilla force (110 French, 50 Mexican cavalry) attack Rojas by surprise, killing him and capturing very large amounts of material. Loizillon Anales
ca. 1 February Sinaloa province france A column of 64 Marines and 64 tirailleurs algériens are destroyed. Loizillon
ca. 1 February San Luis area france A column of 3 companies of Zouaves (150 men) lose 50 men after being caught in inhospitable terrain on a march to Mexico City. Loizillon
4 February Oaxaca france The city falls after a brief siege. French losses are extremely low. Avenel
February Tres Cruces france Infaterie legere d'Afrique in the follow-up to Oaxaca. CFFH
February Aguilera france Infaterie legere d'Afrique in the follow up to Oaxaca. CFFH
ca. 24 February Los Reyes francemexico A column of 120 Zouaves, 5 French cavalry, 9 sappers plus supporting Mexicans (87 infantry, 90 cavalry) under Loizillon storm the village before retiring. Liberals were the groups of Regulares and Salazar. Loizillon
ca. March Zitacuaro mexico The Imperial garrison is almost entirely wiped out by the guerrillas of Ugalde and Traspena. Duschene
2 March Callejon de la Laja AustriaMexicoFrance A small Austro/Mexican/Sudanese force was ambushed in a defile. Hill
29 March (?) Saltillo mexico Negrete storms the town for the Liberals. Roeder
end March Guaymas france Colonel Garnier takes the town.. Anales
24 April Michoacan france During Colonel Potier's clearance of this province, the 5th Hussars charge the Liberals under Regulares (3,500 men) three times and then pursue. The 81st Line is also present. CFFH
6 June Yerba-Buena franceunsure The column of General Jeaningros (2 battalions Legion, 2 squadrons of Chasseurs d'Afrique, 1 battery) sweep General Negrete's troops away on their way to Saltillo. There is mention of the Contre-Guerillas here too (though for 8 June). CFFH
early 1865 - The Liberals are now at their lowest effect militarily. However from time to time entire Imperial Mexican units desert to the enemy, at least in part due to Maximilian’s trimming of his army. -
23 July Guaymas france The French in this town are encircled by hostile guerrilla forces (they had arrived by sea) until Colonel Garnier breaks through and occupies Hermosillo with 550 men. He then reconciles the local Indian tribes and the Liberal party are crushed. Avenel
April - The French now number 28,000; plus there are 6,000 Austrians and 1,300 Belgians. The Mexican forces of Maximilian number 20,000 plus a further 8,500 Guardas (urban and rural). Anales
11 April Tocambaro Belgiummexico A column of four Belgian companies and a small Mexican squadron is caught in the town by a large number of Liberals under Regulares and surrender after a long fight. Duchesne Pierron
23 April ? france Colonel de Potier defeats Regulares. Avenel
mid-1865 - france Several campaigns on the eastern coast (Guerrero/Michoacan) fail to make much headway. -
June Rio de Lerma francemexico Nauroy, with 100 Zouaves and 150 Mexicans, is forced to retire into the town's redoubt by Pueblita, but holds out until nightfall. The Liberals then retire. Loizillon
July Chihuahua A drive is made by the French on Juarez in the north, against almost no direct opposition. -
16 July La Loma (aka Tocambaro) Belgiummexico Colonel Van Den Smissen’s Belgian and Mexican force (800 men) defeats General Arteaga (3,000 men). Duchesne CFFH
1 August ? (Chihuahua) france General Brincourt defeats Negrete Anales
8 August Custades france Two squadrons of Chasseurs d'Afrique and two companies of mounted Zouavaes supprise the enemy at this hacienda, killing 180. CFFH
8 August ? france A company of the 95th line is crushed by General Villagran’s guerrillas. Avenel
14 August El Chamal franceunsure A battalion of the Infanterie leger d'Afrique forces the pass here, with the 2nd Zouaves and engineers coming to their assistance. CFFH
? August near Jalapa austria Austrians suffer a check? Loizillon
22 September Alamos (Sonora) mexico Victory for the Imperialist Jose Almada over Rosales. Anales
28 September Bagdad mexico General Escobedo (Liberal) attacks General Mejia, but is driven off when the French navy arrives. Avenel
12 October Santa Ana Amatlan mexico Colonel Mendez wins, capturing Generals Arteaga and Salazar. They are shot as reprisal for a guerrilla attack on a train which had caused numerous civilian and military casualties. Avenel Anales
October Ahuacatlan austriaunsure 64 Austrians hold out for three hours, before surrendering. (Not sure if any Imperial Mexicans were present). CFFH
19 October Artillero franceunsure A big success for the Zouave mule-mounted company at this hacienda against guerrillas. CFFH
19 October Santa Estera austriamexico 30 Austrians are wiped out in an ambush, their 200 Mexican auxiliaries abandoning them.. CFFH
ca. 22 October Figueroa austriafrance 120 Austrian cavalry plus French destroy a Liberal force. CFFH
16 November Tlapacoyan austriamexico A large Austrian force (7 companies, 1 squadron) with Mexican auxiliaries and 6 guns unsuccessfully assaults the town in a three pronged attack. CFFH
21 November Tlapacoyan austriamexico A second Austrian attack succeeds, with a bayonet charge of the barricades, and the Liberals take heavy losses. CFFH
25 November Los Lermas france A squadron of the 12th Chasseurs go to the aid of the besieged city of Monterey. The French cavalry fake a retreat, drawing the opposing Mexicans into favourable terrain, before turning to charge. CFFH
November Matamoros mexico General Mejia successfully defends against Juarez (3,000 men, some Americans, 11 guns) Avenel
9 December Piesas francemexico A cavalry platoon of the Infaterie legere d'Afrique and Mexican allies entering the town are attacked by 180 Liberals barricaded there, and are forced to retire after 7 hours of combat. CFFH


early 1866 - The French now start a policy of withdrawing from the edges of the country. -
4 January El Gallo franceunsure Compagnie Franche of the 95th Line attack 300 Mexicans. CFFH
4 January Bagdad austriamexico Escobedo, supported by American Negro regulars, takes the town from 40 Austrians and 150 Mexicans and then voluntarily withdraws on 25 January. Avenel
7 January Alamos (Sonora) mexico A victory for General Martinez. Anales
28 January Tehuantepec mexico Maximilianist victory. Avenel
January Reynosa mexico Liberal victory. Avenel
20 February La Loma de la Magdalena mexico General Mendez (Maximilian) wins a victory over Regulares near Uruapan. Casualties were heavy in the 3 hour battle: the losers had 200 dead + 300 prisoners; the winners 150 men dead and wounded. Avenel Anales
February San Jacinto    Europemexico General Miramon (Maximilian) is defeated. Circa 100 Imperial Gendarmes of French extraction are executed. Avenel
1 March Santa Isabel francemexico A column of Legion with Mexican allies under Colonel Bryand attack the Liberals under General Viesca (perhaps 1,000 men). Both sides suffer very heavy casualties, but the Imperials are soundly defeated and all the French are killed or taken captive. Note: the sources all give extremely varying numbers but it seems that there were ~150 French, ~150 Mexican cavalry allies and similar Mexican foot Avenel Anales Elton CFFH
7 March - Bazaine fixes the objectives of the French forces as occupation of three main axes of communication, with troops not to stray more than 20 km from these. Avenel
18 March Cinguicho franceunsure Chasseurs a pied. CFFH
19 March El Presidio franceunsure Some 5,000 Mexicans face 700 French, including a squadron of Chasseurs d'Afrique, who succeed in driving off the enemy after a 4 hour defence of the town. CFFH
24 March Chihuahua mexico The Juaristas successfully assault the town. The French had left 500 Mexicans behind as a garrison when they left on 31 January. Contributing to the success was artillery fire on an important part of the defence. Internet Anales
14 April Matamoros mexico General Mejia (Imperialist) pursues and fights Cortina’s men, including some Americans, twice. Dabbs
16 April Marin Belgiummexico Belgians and Mexican cavalry under Quiorja chase away a force of Mexican cavalry. Loiseau
6 May Baron franceunsure 62nd Line (pacifying Sinaloa/Sonora). CFFH
25 May Fresnillo and Sallada franceunsure The actions of the 95th Line merits praise directly from Marshal Bazaine. CFFH
6 June Matamoros mexico Mejia capitulates to Carbajal, embarking at Matamoros for Vera Cruz. Anales
16 June Camargo (aka Santa Gertrudis) austriamexico General Olvera’s column (1,500 men, including 300 Austrians) on the way to Matamoros to support General Meija is crushed by 3-5,000 Liberals, plus Americans. Avenel Anales
18 June Charco Redondo Belgiumunsure Belgians suffer 4 casualties. This may be the action noted in CFFH as Catorce, in which case there were Legion and Infanterie legere d'Afrique present. Duchesne Loiseau
June Cedral france Two columns of the Bataillon d'Afrique and some cavalry under Commandant de la Hayrie attack the town. The first grinds to a halt after the initial surprise, but the arrival of the second allows the Liberals to be driven from the town. (CFFH adds a small number of Mexican allies.) Elton CFFH
1 August Tampico francemexico Captain Langlois’s 200 contra-guerrillas and 500 Mexicans are attacked by 2,500 Liberals under Pavon. Most of the Mexicans desert and the town surrenders on 7 August. Avenel Anales
18 August la Noria del Custodio franceunsure A light column (cavalry and mule mounted infantry (Zouaves)) suprise and destroy an enemy force. CFFH
4 September Guadalupe francemexico General Martinez defeats General Tanori and Captain Lamberg. Anales
5 September Ures francemexico General Martinez follows up his victory of the day before, winning another action and taking the town. Anales
11 September El Grande austria Lieutenant Hoop defeats a Mexican unit, but falls into an ambush while pursuing them. CFFH
12 September Palos Prietos franceunsure 62nd Line (pacifying Sinaloa/Sonora). CFFH
25 September Ixmiquilpan Belgium An attempted surprise attack by a Belgian column (250 infantry in carts, 90 mounted) goes wrong. They retire in good order over a 48 hour period but with substantial losses. The Liberals number some 300 infantry and 500 cavalry) Duchesne
3 October Miahuatlan franceaustriamexico General Oronoz, attempting to prevent Diaz from besieging Oaxaca, has his men routed by Diaz. Avenel gives the Imperialists 1,200 men. Anales has the force numbering 3,000, with a small portion of that French and Austrian. Avenel Anales Wikipedia
18 October Carbonera austriamexico Major Krielk, with an Austro-Mexican column (1,500 men, mostly Austrians) attempts to relieve the siege of Oaxaca, but is routed by Diaz in a brief battle. Diaz had 3,600 men. He resumes the siege of Oaxaca two days later. The city capitulates on the 31st. Avenel Anales Internet
2 November Cerro Blanco franceunsure Zouaves at this combat. CFFH
11–13 November Mazatlan france Liberals attack 62nd Line (now in the process of withdrawing back to France). Avenel CFFH
10 November Guayabo francemexico The Liberals defeat the French bandit Colonel Berthelin, killing him and 40 of his men (mixed French and Mexican) Anales
11 November Jalapa mexico The city falls to Juaristas, although a French/Austrian relief force is on the way. Dabbs
November Matamoros mexico Juaristas under Escobedo besiege the city, which is held by Canales, another Liberal but Ortegista. (I have no idea if any actual fighting occurs). Across
18 December Coronilla francemexico Colonel Parra defeats 700 men under Sayan. Losses are said to be 150 dead, mostly French and 370 prisoner, including 101 French. Anales
26 December Chalco france Infanterie legere d'Afrique CFFH


13 January - The first French troops embark at Vera Cruz in the withdrawal. By now the French have long since lost any interest in the war and are even negotiating with the Liberals to ensure a peaceful evacuation. Dabbs
26 January Sauz mexico General Antillon defeats General Liceaga heavily in a dawn action. Anales
26 January Guanajuato mexico General Antillon defeats General Liceaga late in the day.. Anales
27 January Zacatecas austriaEuropemexico General Aranda is defeated by Miramon (1,500 men, including many cavalry + artillery) who forces his way into the town (Corti says 4,000 men). Juarez is almost caught in the retreat. Austrians and many French in Gendarmes on Maximilianist side, US Legion of Honor on Liberal side. Arms  Roeder Anales
1 February San Joaquin or San Jacinto austriaEuropemexico Miramon, retiring from Zacatecas, is routed at this hacienda by the Liberals under Escobedo, with 200 dead, more wounded and 500 prisoners (Corti says 1,500). The 139 Frenchmen are later shot. Roeder Anales
4 February Quemada unsure General Castillo defeats General Herrera y Cairo. Anales
5 February - Bazaine leaves Mexico City at the head of the last French troops. -
5 March Queretaro Europemexico The siege of the city commences. The defenders have 9,000 men but most of the foreigners are not present. At some point, probably early, the American Legion of Honor joins the Liberal camp, which numbers around 25,000 (and growing). Avenel  Arms Anales
12 March Cerro San Pablo Europemexico The defenders take this hill, outside Queretaro, but cannot hold it. Avenel
14 March Queretaro Europemexico A double pronged Liberal attack: one from the Cerro San Pablo and Cerro de San Gregorio is repulsed by a counter-attack, while a long and confused struggle for Cruz also fails, with the attackers losing quite a few prisoners. Then another assault on Casa Blanca also fails. Avenel Basch
17 March San Juanico Europemexico The defenders take this outlying town of Queretaro, but cannot hold it. Avenel
22 March Queretaro mexico Generals Marquez and Vidaurri break out of the city in the middle of the night with 1,200 men (all cavalry?). They ride to Mexico City. Roeder Anales
24 March Casa Blanca Europemexico An assault of this important bastion of Queretaro results in heavy casualties on both sides (in the thousands) but the intervention of Imperial cavalry appears the decisive feature in the repulse of the Liberals. Avenel Anales
March Puebla mexico Diaz invests the city, which has a garrison of around 2,500. It capitulates on 2 April (after an attack?). Avenel Anales
1 April Queretaro Europemexico Another assault. Corti has it as a sortie on San Gregorio. Avenel Corti
6 April San Lorenzo austriaEuropemexico General Marquez (3,500 men, 17 guns) is defeated in a bloody battle by the greatly superior forces of Diaz while attempting to relieve the city of Puebla. (It is possible the Mexican portion wavered upon news of the fall of Puebla, leaving only the foreign elements as reliable troops for Marquez.) Avenel Anales Conti
12 April Mexico City Europemexico A siege commences, as Diaz follows up the defeated Marquez. It was never pressed very hard, despite the defenders not having very many men (4,500?). Avenel Anales
27 April Battle of the Cemetary
This famous dawn battle developed initially from a surprise sortie to seize provisions. It was won by Miramon for the Imperialists, leading 2,800 men, against Ramon Corona. 20 guns and 500 prisoners were taken back into the city. Both sides had cavalry in numbers. This battle is often dated 26 April. Avenal Anales Conti
1 May Calleja Europemexico
A break-out attempt from Queretaro under Colonel Rodriguez fails. Avenel Anales
3 May Queretaro Europemexico A sortie is defeated heavily. The defenders now number only about 5,000 men. Avenel
5 May Queretaro Europemexico A frontal attack fails, in great part due to the defending artillery. Avenel
14 May Queretaro Another breakout is about to be attempted (with the aim being to die in the field rather than penned up) but a traitor in the Imperial camp lets the Liberals into a vital spot in the defence. Avenel Roeder
20 June Mexico City Europemexico The city surrenders. The final blow for the defenders is the (late arriving) news of Maximilian’s death: at which point the foreigners defending refuse to fight on. Althought the siege was not pressed particularly hard, the American Legion of Honor certainly engaged the defenders. Avenel Arms Anales

Actions that cannot be placed

1865–1866 Morelia Belgiumunsure Belgians suffer 7 casualties. Duchesne
Autumn 1865? Sabinas River confederate Imperials beat Liberals. Ex-Confederates fighting for Maximilian lose 27 killed, 37 wounded; Liberals lose 200 killed. Davis
1864 Auxillo franceunsure At this hacienda, the 1,800 Liberals under Martinez are routed by a squadron of the Chasseurs d'Afrique, some 12th Chasseurs a cheval and the 51st Line. CFFH
1864 Agua Nueva franceunsure Chasseurs d'Afrique CFFH
1865 Los Sances franceunsure 95th Line catches Guittierez, killing 15 of his men and taking 45 prisoner. CFFH
late Matehuala confederatefrance 500 troops of 82nd line commanded by Major Henri Pierron are besieged by 2,000 Republicans under Escobedo. Maximilian forces under Shelby (ex-Confederates) attack the republican rear and break the siege. There is mention of French cavalry in the action. Davis
late? Monterey francemexico A Mexican Imperial garrison, having lost much of the town, are on the point of conceding when a 110 man party from the Bataillon d'Afrique under Commandant de la Hayrie makes a surprise attack into General Escobedo's rear after a forced march. The Imperialists then hold out for 24 hours, only to sally out once again to catch the enemy between them and the arriving column of General Jeaningros. Elton
late 1866 Cautitlan mexico Miramon defeats the Liberals Elton
1866 Teotitlan austria A small Austrian garrison holds off an attack by the 300 men of Flores, despite the Liberals' use of Contre-guerilla uniforms in an attempt to sneak into the town. CFFH
early 1866 Penjamo franceunsure 51st Line (Michoacan campaign). CFFH
early 1866 Bajio franceunsure 51st Line (Michoacan campaign). CFFH
1865-1866 Colorado franceunsure 5th Hussars rout the bands of Brigido Torres and Numez Lesdema. CFFH
1866-1867 Amozoc francemexico A combat of the 5th Hussars, 3rd Zouaves and regular Mexican cavalry allies while relieving the Austrians at Tlaxcala. CFFH