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How Odessa became Red

I wrote this book with Tom Hillman and Alexis Mehtidis on the French and Greek Intervention in Odessa and the Crimea in early 1919.

Table of contents

Author's Note   –     3

Section 1: Introduction   –     7

Why the Ukraine?   –     7
Problems from the Start   –     9
Chronology of Major Events   –     12

Section 2: The Opposing Armies   –     17

The French   –     17

French Troops   –     19
French Organisation   –     23
French Uniforms   –     23
Franco-Russian Units   –     24

The Greeks   –     24

Greek Troops   –     26
Greek Organisation   –     27
Greek Uniforms   –     28

The Romanians   –     29

Romanian Troops   –     30
Romanian Uniforms   –     30

The Volunteer Army   –     30

VA Troops   –     32
VA Organisation   –     32
VA Uniforms   –     35
Ekaterinoslav March   –     36

The Poles   –     37

Polish Organisation   –     37
Polish Uniforms   –     37

The Czechs   –     38

The Germans   –     38

The Red Army   –     39

Atamanshchina (Era of the Atamans)   –     40
The Ukrainian Soviet Army   –     41
Red Army Organisation   –     47
Red Army Uniforms   –     48

The Directory and Petliura   –     48

Directory Troops   –     50
Directory Organisation   –     50
Directory Uniforms   –     50

Technical Arms   –     51

Tanks   –     51
Armoured Cars   –     52
Armoured Trains   –     53
Planes   –     54

Section 3: The Campaign   –     57

The Landing in Odessa   –     57
Occupying the Railway Lines   –     59

The Attack on Tiraspol   –     60
The Bielajevska Ambush and Reprisal   –     61

Kherson   –     61
Nikolaiev   –     65
Berezovka   –     67

Opposing Forces   –     69
The Battle of Berezovka – 18 March 1919   –     70
Results of the Battle   –     73

Fortified Odessa – March 1919   –     75
Soviet Forces   –     80
How Strong was Odessa?   –     81
Odessa City   –     81
Some Numbers   –     82
Attack on Cerbka   –     84
Cerbka Retaken – 27 March 1919   –     86
Cerbka Turned – 31 March 1919   –     88
Bol Buyalik   –     89
Evacuation of Odessa   –     90
Crossing the Dniester   –     95
The Crimea   –     96
Battle of Perekop – "Breaching the Crimea"   –     97
Fortified Sebastopol   –     100
The Reds Attack Sebastopol   –     102
Bessarabia   –     105
Grigoriev Revolts   –     106
Attack on Bender   –     106
The End of the Intervention   –     107

Section 4: Wargaming the Campaign   –     109

Terrain   –     109

Odessa   –     109
The Crimea   –     110

Refighting the Actions   –     111

Kherson   –     113
Berezovka and the Drive on Odessa   –     114
Perekop Defence   –     114
Tank actions   –     114
"What-ifs"   –     114

Figures   –     115

Ranges   –     115

Section 5: Conclusion   –     117

Appendices   –     119

Appendix 1: Further Reading   –     119
Appendix 2: Terms Defined   –     122
Appendix 3: Proper Names   –     123

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